UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

x

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2016

OR

¨

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from              to             

Commission file number 000-30171

 

SANGAMO BIOSCIENCES, INC.

(exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

68-0359556

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(IRS Employer

Identification No.)

501 Canal Blvd

Richmond, California 94804

(Address of principal executive offices)

(510) 970-6000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

x

Accelerated filer

¨

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

¨  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company

¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No   x

As of May 2, 2016, 70,492,496 shares of the issuer’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, were outstanding.

 

 

 

 


INDEX

SANGAMO BIOSCIENCES, INC.

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

  

Item 1.

Financial Statements (Unaudited)

3

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015

3

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Three Months Ended
March 31, 2016 and 2015

4

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss for the Three Months Ended
March 31, 2016 and 2015

5

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2016 and 2015

6

 

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

7

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

16

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

20

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

20

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

21

Item 1A

Risk Factors

21

Item 6.

Exhibits

35

 

 

SIGNATURES

36

 

 

CERTIFICATIONS

 

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Some statements contained in this report are forward-looking with respect to our operations, research, development and commercialization activities, clinical trials, operating results and financial condition. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

·

our strategy;

 

·

product development and commercialization of our products;

 

·

clinical trials;

 

·

partnering, acquisition and other strategic transactions;

 

·

revenues from existing and new collaborations;

 

·

our research and development and other expenses;

 

·

sufficiency of our cash resources;

 

·

our operational and legal risks; and

 

·

our plans, objectives, expectations and intentions and any other statements that are not historical facts.

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as: “anticipates,” “believes,” “continues,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “seeks,” “should” and “will.” These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these risks and uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.  We discuss many of these risks in greater detail under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations” in this Form 10-Q. Sangamo undertakes no obligation to publicly release any revisions to forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances arising after the date of this report. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

ZFP Therapeutic® and Engineering Genetic Cures® are registered trademarks of Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. This report also contains trademarks and trade names that are the property of their respective owners.

2

 


PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

ITEM  1.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

SANGAMO BIOSCIENCES, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(Unaudited; in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

33,009

 

 

$

69,482

 

Marketable securities

 

 

154,572

 

 

 

139,518

 

Interest receivable

 

 

402

 

 

 

307

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

2,567

 

 

 

2,521

 

Prepaid expenses

 

 

588

 

 

 

754

 

Total current assets

 

 

191,138

 

 

 

212,582

 

Marketable securities, non-current

 

 

1,003

 

 

 

-

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

3,176

 

 

 

2,916

 

Goodwill

 

 

1,585

 

 

 

1,585

 

Other assets

 

 

146

 

 

 

152

 

Total assets

 

$

197,048

 

 

$

217,235

 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable and accrued liabilities

 

$

3,111

 

 

$

8,229

 

Accrued compensation and employee benefits

 

 

1,722

 

 

 

2,748

 

Deferred revenues

 

 

5,261

 

 

 

9,120

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

10,094

 

 

 

20,097

 

Deferred revenues, non-current

 

 

7,334

 

 

 

4,699

 

Build-to-suit lease obligation

 

 

213

 

 

 

 

Total liabilities

 

 

17,641

 

 

 

24,796

 

Commitments and contingencies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders' equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.01 par value; 160,000,000 shares authorized, 70,400,036 and

     70,354,608 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2016 and

     December 31, 2015, respectively

 

 

704

 

 

 

703

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

564,367

 

 

 

560,989

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(385,747

)

 

 

(369,253

)

Accumulated other comprehensive income

 

 

83

 

 

 

 

Total stockholders' equity

 

 

179,407

 

 

 

192,439

 

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity

 

$

197,048

 

 

$

217,235

 

 

See accompanying notes.

 

 

 

3

 


SANGAMO BIOSCIENCES, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(Unaudited; in thousands, except per share amounts)

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Revenues:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Collaboration agreements

 

$

3,711

 

 

$

12,671

 

Research grants

 

 

231

 

 

 

820

 

Total revenues

 

 

3,942

 

 

 

13,491

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

15,266

 

 

 

14,980

 

General and administrative

 

 

5,357

 

 

 

4,732

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

20,623

 

 

 

19,712

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(16,681

)

 

 

(6,221

)

Interest and other income, net

 

 

187

 

 

 

154

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(16,494

)

 

 

(6,067

)

Benefit from income taxes

 

 

 

 

 

748

 

Net loss

 

$

(16,494

)

 

$

(5,319

)

Basic and diluted net loss per share

 

$

(0.23

)

 

$

(0.08

)

Shares used in computing basic and diluted net loss per share

 

 

70,373

 

 

 

69,283

 

 

See accompanying notes.

 

 

 

4

 


SANGAMO BIOSCIENCES, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(Unaudited; in thousands)

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Net loss

 

$

(16,494

)

 

$

(5,319

)

Change in unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities, net

 

 

83

 

 

 

50

 

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(16,411

)

 

$

(5,269

)

 

 

See accompanying notes.

 

 

 

5

 


SANGAMO BIOSCIENCES, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(Unaudited: in thousands)

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Operating Activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(16,494

)

 

$

(5,319

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

245

 

 

 

147

 

Amortization of premium on marketable securities

 

 

72

 

 

 

241

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

3,194

 

 

 

2,953

 

Change in fair value of contingent consideration liability

 

 

 

 

 

(1,800

)

Intangible impairment

 

 

 

 

 

1,870

 

Benefit from income taxes

 

 

 

 

 

(748

)

Net changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest receivable

 

 

(95

)

 

 

25

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

(46

)

 

 

3,730

 

Prepaid expenses and other assets

 

 

172

 

 

 

101

 

Accounts payable and accrued liabilities

 

 

(5,158

)

 

 

(2,477

)

Accrued compensation and employee benefits

 

 

(1,026

)

 

 

(1,150

)

Deferred revenues

 

 

(1,224

)

 

 

34

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(20,360

)

 

 

(2,393

)

Investing Activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of marketable securities

 

 

(84,816

)

 

 

(39,423

)

Maturities of marketable securities

 

 

68,770

 

 

 

58,955

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(252

)

 

 

(1,084

)

Net cash provided by / (used in) investing activities

 

 

(16,298

)

 

 

18,448

 

Financing Activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards

 

 

(2

)

 

 

(7

)

Proceeds from issuance of common stock

 

 

187

 

 

 

3,178

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

185

 

 

 

3,171

 

Net increase / (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

 

 

(36,473

)

 

 

19,226

 

Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period

 

 

69,482

 

 

 

6,030

 

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period

 

$

33,009

 

 

$

25,256

 

Supplemental disclosure of noncash investing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Property and equipment included in accrued liabilities

 

$

253

 

 

$

579

 

 

 

See accompanying notes.

 

 

 

 

6

 


SANGAMO BIOSCIENCES, INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

March 31, 2016

(Unaudited)

 

NOTE 1—BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. (“Sangamo” or the “Company”) have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles for interim financial information and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by generally accepted accounting principles for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included. Operating results for the three months ended March 31, 2016 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2016. The condensed consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2015 were derived from the audited consolidated financial statements included in Sangamo’s Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015, as filed with the SEC. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements and related financial information should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and footnotes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2015, included in Sangamo’s Form 10-K, as filed with the SEC.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and the accompanying notes. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates its estimates, including critical accounting policies or estimates related to revenue recognition, clinical trial accruals, and stock-based compensation. Estimates are based on historical experience and on various other market specific and other relevant assumptions that the Company believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ from those estimates. During the first quarter of 2016, we revised the estimated performance period of the upfront Biogen license through June 2019. This change increased net loss by $0.9 million and increased our basic net loss per share by $0.01 for the three month period ended March 31, 2016.

Revenue Recognition

Revenues from research activities made under strategic partnering agreements and collaborations are recognized as the services are provided when there is persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the price is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. Revenue generated from research and licensing agreements typically includes upfront signing or license fees, cost reimbursements, research services, minimum sublicense fees, milestone payments and royalties on future licensee’s product sales.

For revenue agreements with multiple element arrangements, such as license and development agreements, entered into on or after January 1, 2011, the Company allocates revenue to each non-contingent element based on the relative selling price of each element. When applying the relative selling price method, the Company determines the selling price for each deliverable using VSOE of selling price or TPE of selling price. If neither exists, the Company uses ESP for that deliverable. Revenue allocated is then recognized when the basic four revenue recognition criteria are met for each element. The collaboration and license agreements entered into with Shire International GmbH, formerly Shire AG (Shire), in January 2012 and Biogen Inc., formerly Biogen Idec Inc. (Biogen) in January 2014 were evaluated under these amended accounting standards.

Additionally, the Company may be entitled to receive certain milestone payments which are contingent upon reaching specified objectives. These milestone payments are recognized as revenue in full upon achievement of the milestone if there is substantive uncertainty at the date the arrangement is entered into that the objectives will be achieved and if the achievement is based on the Company’s performance.

Minimum annual sublicense fees are also recognized as revenue in the period in which such fees are due. Royalty revenues are generally recognized when earned and collectability of the related royalty payment is reasonably assured. The Company recognizes cost reimbursement revenue under collaborative agreements as the related research and development costs for services are rendered. Deferred revenue represents the portion of research or license payments received which have not been earned.

7

 


Sangamo’s research grants are typically multi-year agreements and provide for the reimbursement of qualified expenses for research and development as defined under the terms of the grant agreement. Revenue under grant agreements is recognized when the related qualified research expenses are incurred.

Recent Accounting Standards

 

In March 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which amends ASC Topic 718, Stock Compensation. The objective of this amendment is part of the FASB’s Simplification Initiative as it applies to several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. The guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within that reporting period. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of the pending adoption of ASU 2016-09 on its consolidated financial statements.

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases. Under the new guidance, lessees will be required to recognize a lease liability and a right-of-use asset for all leases (with the exception of short-term leases) at the commencement date. ASU 2016-02 is effective for annual and interim periods beginning on or after December 15, 2018 and early adoption is permitted. Under ASU 2016-02, lessees (for capital and operating leases) and lessors (for sales-type, direct financing, and operating leases) must apply a modified retrospective transition approach for leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements. Lessees and lessors may not apply a full retrospective transition approach. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of the pending adoption of ASU 2016-02 on its consolidated financial statements.

 

In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15, Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern. ASU 2014-15 requires management to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosures. In doing so, companies will have reduced diversity in the timing and content of footnote disclosures than under the current guidance. ASU 2014-15 is effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2016 with early adoption permitted. The Company does not believe the impact of adopting ASU 2014-15 on its consolidated financial statements is material.

 

In May 2014 the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASU 2014-09). This standard outlines a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The main principle of ASU 2014-09 is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that is expected to be received for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 provides companies with two implementation methods: (i) apply the standard retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented (full retrospective application); or (ii) apply the standard retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying the standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings of the annual reporting period that includes the date of initial application (modified retrospective application). This guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that reporting period. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of the pending adoption of ASU 2014-09 on its consolidated financial statements.

 

NOTE 2—FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT

The Company measures certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value on a recurring basis, including cash equivalents, and available-for sale-securities. The fair value of these assets were determined based on a three-tier hierarchy under the authoritative guidance for fair value measurements and disclosures that prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:

Level 1: Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities;

Level 2: Quoted prices in markets that are not active or inputs which are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability; and

Level 3: Prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (i.e., supported by little or no market activity).

8

 


The fair value measurements of the Company’s cash equivalents, and available-for-sale marketable securities are identified at the following levels within the fair value hierarchy (in thousands):

 

 

 

March 31, 2016

 

 

 

Fair Value Measurements

 

 

 

Total

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market funds

 

$

19,387

 

 

$

19,387

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

U.S. government sponsored entity debt securities

 

 

8,670

 

 

 

8,670

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

28,057

 

 

 

28,057

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marketable securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper securities

 

 

32,468

 

 

 

 

 

 

32,468

 

 

 

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

14,559

 

 

 

 

 

 

14,559

 

 

 

 

U.S. government sponsored entity debt securities

 

 

108,548

 

 

 

 

 

 

108,548

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

155,575

 

 

 

 

 

 

155,575

 

 

 

 

Total cash equivalents and marketable securities

 

$

183,632

 

 

$

28,057

 

 

$

155,575

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2015

 

 

 

Fair Value Measurements

 

 

 

Total

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market funds

 

$

25,070

 

 

$

25,070

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Commercial paper securities

 

 

2,000

 

 

 

2,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. government sponsored entity debt securities

 

 

38,867

 

 

 

38,867

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

65,937

 

 

 

65,937

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marketable securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper securities

 

 

30,717

 

 

 

 

 

 

30,717

 

 

 

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

17,263

 

 

 

 

 

 

17,263

 

 

 

 

U.S. government sponsored entity debt securities

 

 

91,538

 

 

 

 

 

 

91,538

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

139,518

 

 

 

 

 

 

139,518

 

 

 

 

Total cash equivalents and marketable securities

 

$

205,455

 

 

$

65,937

 

 

$

139,518

 

 

$

 

 

The Company generally classifies its marketable securities as Level 2. Instruments can be classified as Level 2 when observable market prices for identical securities that are traded in less active markets are used. When observable market prices for identical securities are not available, such instruments are priced using benchmark curves, benchmarking of like securities, sector groupings, matrix pricing and valuation models. These valuation models are proprietary to the pricing providers or brokers and incorporate a number of inputs, including, listed in approximate order of priority: benchmark yields, reported trades, broker/dealer quotes, issuer spreads, two-sided markets, benchmark securities, bids, offers and reference data including market research publications. For certain security types, additional inputs may be used, or some of the standard inputs may not be applicable. Evaluators may prioritize inputs differently on any given day for any security based on market conditions, and not all inputs listed are available for use in the evaluation process for each security evaluation on any given day.

 

NOTE 3—MARKETABLE SECURITIES

Sangamo classifies its marketable securities as available-for-sale and records its investments at estimated fair value based on quoted market prices or observable market inputs of substantially identical assets. Unrealized holding gains and losses are included in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Investments that have maturities beyond one year as of the end of the reporting period are classified as non-current.

The Company’s investments are subject to a periodic impairment review.  The Company recognizes an impairment charge when a decline in the fair value of its investments below the cost basis is judged to be other-than-temporary. The Company considers various factors in determining whether to recognize an impairment charge, including the length of time and extent to which the fair value has been less than the Company’s cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the investee, and the Company’s intent and ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in the market value.  Realized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities are included in other income, which is determined using the specific identification method

9

 


The table below summarizes the Company’s investments (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross

 

 

Gross

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized

 

 

Unrealized

 

 

Unrealized

 

 

Estimated

 

 

 

Cost

 

 

Gains

 

 

(Losses)

 

 

Fair Value

 

March 31, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market funds

 

$

19,387

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

19,387

 

U.S. government sponsored entity debt securities

 

 

8,669

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

8,670

 

Total

 

 

28,056

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

28,057

 

Available-for-sale securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper securities

 

$

32,413

 

 

$

55

 

 

$

 

 

$

32,468

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

14,563

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

(5

)

 

 

14,559

 

U.S. government sponsored entity debt securities

 

 

108,501

 

 

 

50

 

 

 

(3

)

 

 

108,548

 

Total

 

 

155,477

 

 

 

106

 

 

 

(8

)

 

 

155,575

 

Total cash equivalents and available-for-sale securities

 

$

183,533

 

 

$

107

 

 

$

(8

)

 

$

183,632

 

December 31, 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market funds

 

$

25,070

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

25,070

 

Commercial paper securities

 

 

2,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,000

 

U.S. government sponsored entity debt securities

 

 

38,866

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

38,867

 

Total

 

 

65,936

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

65,937

 

Available-for-sale securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper securities

 

$

30,667

 

 

$

50

 

 

$

 

 

$

30,717

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

17,275

 

 

 

 

 

 

(12

)

 

 

17,263

 

U.S. government sponsored entity debt securities

 

 

91,562

 

 

 

 

 

 

(24

)

 

 

91,538

 

Total

 

 

139,504

 

 

 

50

 

 

 

(36

)

 

 

139,518

 

Total cash equivalents and available-for-sale securities

 

$

205,440

 

 

$

51

 

 

$

(36

)

 

$

205,455

 

 

The Company had no other-than-temporary impairments of its investments for the three months ended March 31, 2016 or the twelve months ended December 31, 2015. As of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, all of the Company’s investments had maturity dates within two years. The Company had no material realized losses or other-than-temporary impairments of available-for-sale securities. Sangamo has the intent and ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in the market value. No investments were other-than-temporarily impaired.

 

NOTE 4—BASIC AND DILUTED NET LOSS PER SHARE

Basic net loss per share has been computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock and potential dilutive securities outstanding during the period.

Because Sangamo is in a net loss position, diluted net loss per share excludes the effects of common stock equivalents consisting of stock options and restricted stock units, which are all anti-dilutive. The total number of shares subject to stock options and restricted stock units outstanding were excluded from consideration in the calculation of diluted net loss per share. Stock options and restricted stock units outstanding for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 were 8,880,007 and 8,522,752, respectively.

 

NOTE 5—MAJOR CUSTOMERS, PARTNERSHIPS AND STRATEGIC ALLIANCES

Collaboration Agreements

Collaboration and License Agreement with Biogen Inc. in Human Therapeutics

In January 2014 the Company entered into a Global Research, Development and Commercialization Collaboration and License Agreement (the “Biogen Agreement”) with Biogen, pursuant to which Sangamo and Biogen collaborate to discover, develop, seek regulatory approval for and commercialize therapeutics based on Sangamo’s zinc finger DNA-binding protein (ZFP) technology for hemoglobinopathies, including beta-thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD).

10

 


Under the Biogen Agreement, Sangamo and Biogen jointly conduct two research programs: the beta-thalassemia program and the SCD program. For the beta-thalassemia program, Sangamo is responsible for all discovery, research and development activities through the first human clinical trial for the first ZFP Therapeutic developed under the Biogen Agreement for the treatment of beta-thalassemia. For the SCD program, both parties are responsible for research and development activities through the submission of an Investigational New Drug (IND) application for ZFP Therapeutics intended to treat SCD. For both programs, Biogen is responsible for subsequent world-wide clinical development, manufacturing and commercialization of licensed products developed under the Biogen Agreement. At the end of specified research terms for each program or under certain specified circumstances, Biogen retains the right to step in and take over any remaining activities of Sangamo. Furthermore, Sangamo has an option to co-promote in the United States any licensed product to treat beta-thalassemia and SCD developed under the Biogen Agreement, and Biogen agrees to compensate Sangamo for such co-promotion activities.

In January 2016 Sangamo and Biogen agreed on an updated beta-thalassemia Development Plan and budget using the BCL11A Enhancer target. As a result of this change, we updated the estimated performance period of the upfront license through June 2019. We also updated the milestones to be received based on the updated performance period of our deliverables under the Biogen Agreement. Sangamo received an upfront license fee of $20.0 million upon entering into the Biogen Agreement. In addition, the Company will also be eligible to receive up to $126.3 million in payments upon the achievement of specified research, regulatory, clinical development milestones, as well as up to $167.5 million in payments upon the achievement of specified commercialization and sales milestones. In addition, if products are commercialized under the Biogen Agreement, Biogen will pay Sangamo incremental royalties for each licensed product that are a tiered double-digit percentage of annual net sales of such product. To date, no milestone payments have been received and no products have been approved and therefore no royalty fees have been earned under the Biogen Agreement.

All contingent payments under the Biogen Agreement, when earned, will be non-refundable and non-creditable. The Company has evaluated the contingent payments under the Biogen Agreement based on the authoritative guidance for research and development milestones and determined that certain of these payments meet the definition of a milestone and that all such milestones are evaluated to determine if they are considered substantive milestones. Milestones are considered substantive if they are related to events (i) that can be achieved based in whole or in part on either the Company’s performance or on the occurrence of a specific outcome resulting from the Company’s performance, (ii) for which there was substantive uncertainty at the date the agreement was entered into that the event would be achieved and (iii) that would result in additional payments being due to the Company. Accordingly, consideration received for the achievement of milestones that are determined to be substantive will be recognized as revenue in their entirety in the period when the milestones are achieved and collectability is reasonably assured. Revenue for the achievement of milestones that are not substantive will be recognized over the remaining period of the Biogen Agreement, assuming all other applicable revenue recognition criteria have been met.

Subject to the terms of the Biogen Agreement, Sangamo grants Biogen an exclusive, royalty-bearing license, with the right to grant sublicenses, to use certain ZFP and other technology controlled by Sangamo for the purpose of researching, developing, manufacturing and commercializing licensed products developed under the Biogen Agreement. Sangamo also grants Biogen a non-exclusive, world-wide, royalty free, fully paid license, with the right to grant sublicenses, of Sangamo’s interest in certain other intellectual property developed pursuant to the Biogen Agreement.

The Company has identified the deliverables within the arrangement as a license to the technology and on-going research services activities. The Company has concluded that the license is not a separate unit of accounting as it does not have stand-alone value to Biogen apart from the research services to be performed pursuant to the Biogen Agreement. As a result, the Company will recognize revenue from the upfront payment on a straight-line basis through June 2019, which is the estimated term during which the Company will perform research services. The estimated period of performance is reviewed quarterly and adjusted, as needed, to reflect our current assumptions regarding the timing of our deliverables. As of March 31, 2016, the Company has deferred revenue of $8.0 million related to the Biogen Agreement.

Revenues recognized under the agreement with Biogen for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 were as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Revenue related to Biogen Collaboration:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recognition of upfront fee

 

$

608

 

 

$

1,523

 

Research services

 

 

2,031

 

 

 

1,533

 

Total

 

$

2,639

 

 

$

3,056

 

 

11

 


Related costs and expenses incurred under the Biogen Agreement related to the beta-thalassemia project, which was co-funded with California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM), were $2.0 million and $1.4 million during the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Related costs and expenses for other projects including sickle cell disease under the Biogen agreement were $0.1 million and $1.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

Amended Collaboration and License Agreement with Shire International GmbH in Human Therapeutics and Diagnostics

In January 2012 the Company entered into a collaboration and license agreement (the “Shire Agreement”) with Shire, pursuant to which the Company and Shire collaborate to research, develop and commercialize human therapeutics and diagnostics for monogenic diseases based on Sangamo’s novel ZFP technology. This agreement was amended on September 1, 2015.  

Under the original Shire Agreement, the Company and Shire agreed to develop potential human therapeutic or diagnostic products for seven gene targets. The initial four gene targets selected were blood clotting Factors VII, VIII, IX and X, and products developed for such initial gene targets will be used for treating or diagnosing hemophilia A and B. In June 2012, Shire selected a fifth gene target for the development of a ZFP Therapeutic for Huntington’s disease. Shire had the right, subject to certain limitations, to designate two additional gene targets. Pursuant to the Shire Agreement, the Company granted Shire an exclusive, world-wide, royalty-bearing license, with the right to grant sublicenses, to use Sangamo’s ZFP technology for the purpose of developing and commercializing human therapeutic and diagnostic products for the gene targets.  

Under the terms of the Shire Agreement, the Company was responsible for all research activities through the submission of an IND or European Clinical Trial Application (CTA), while Shire was responsible for clinical development and commercialization of products generated from the research program from and after the acceptance of an IND or CTA for the product. Shire reimbursed Sangamo for agreed upon internal and external program-related research costs. The Company received an upfront license fee of $13.0 million upon entering into the Shire Agreement in 2012. In 2014 Sangamo recognized a $1.0 million milestone payment related to the hemophilia program.

On September 1, 2015, the Shire Agreement was amended such that Shire agreed to return to Sangamo the exclusive, world-wide rights to gene targets for the development and commercialization of ZFP Therapeutics for hemophilia A and B.  Shire retains the rights and will continue to develop a ZFP Therapeutic for Huntington’s disease and a ZFP Therapeutic for one additional gene target yet to be named.  Sangamo will provide certain target feasibility services, and upon Shire’s request, certain research activities according to a research plan as agreed upon by both companies. Such research activities performed by Sangamo will be reimbursed by Shire. Shire’s rights with respect to other targets contemplated in the original agreement revert to Sangamo. Under the revised agreement, each company is responsible for expenses associated with its own programs and will reimburse the other for any ongoing services provided. Shire is responsible for reimbursement of $4.0 million related to obligations prior to the amendment date which is being recognized in revenue as expenses are incurred. During the three months ended March 31, 2016, there were no expenses incurred and recognized related to prior obligations. Sangamo has granted Shire a right of first negotiation to license the hemophilia A and B programs. Under the amended agreement, Shire does not have any milestone payment obligations to us with respect to the retained programs, but it is required to pay single digit percentage royalties to us, up to a specified maximum cap, on the commercial sales of ZFP therapeutic products from such programs. Under the Agreement, Sangamo has full control over, and full responsibility for the costs of, the hemophilia programs returned to us, subject to certain diligence obligations and Shire’s right of first negotiation to obtain a license to such programs under certain circumstances. The Company is required to pay single digit percentage royalties to Shire, up to a specified maximum cap, on commercial sales of ZFP therapeutic products from such returned programs.  

The Company has identified the deliverables within the amended arrangement as a license to the technology and on-going research services activities. The Company has concluded that the license is not a separate unit of accounting as it does not have stand-alone value to Shire apart from the research services to be performed pursuant to the Shire amendment. Sangamo continues to be responsible for research activities related to our licensed technology with Shire under the amendment. As a result, the Company will continue to recognize revenue from the upfront payment received upon entering into the original Shire agreement in 2012 on a straight-line basis over the six-year initial research term during which the Company expects to perform research services. As of March 31, 2016, the Company has deferred revenue of $4.0 million related to the Shire Agreement.

12

 


Revenues recognized under the agreement with Shire for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 were as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Revenue related to Shire Collaboration:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recognition of upfront fee

 

$

542

 

 

$

542

 

Research services

 

 

429

 

 

 

4,522

 

Total

 

$

971

 

 

$

5,064

 

 

Related costs and expenses incurred under the Shire agreement were $0.4 million and $4.5 million during the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

Agreement with Sigma-Aldrich Corporation in Laboratory Research Reagents, Transgenic Animal and Commercial Protein Production Cell-line Engineering

In July 2007 the Company entered into a license agreement (the “Sigma Agreement”) with Sigma-Aldrich Corporation (Sigma). Under the Sigma Agreement, Sangamo agreed to provide Sigma with access to Sangamo’s proprietary ZFP technology and the exclusive right to use the technology to develop and commercialize research reagent products and services in the research field, excluding certain agricultural research uses that Sangamo previously licensed to Dow AgroSciences LLC (DAS). Under the Sigma Agreement, Sangamo and Sigma agreed to conduct a three-year research program to develop laboratory research reagents using Sangamo’s ZFP technology during which time Sangamo agreed to assist Sigma in connection with its efforts to market and sell services employing the Company’s ZFP technology in the research field. Sangamo has transferred its ZFP manufacturing technology to Sigma.

In October 2009 the Company expanded the Sigma Agreement. In addition to the original terms of the Sigma Agreement, Sigma received exclusive rights to develop and distribute ZFP-modified cell lines for commercial production of protein pharmaceuticals and certain ZFP-engineered transgenic animals for commercial applications. Under the terms of the agreement, Sigma made an upfront cash payment of $20.0 million consisting of a $4.9 million purchase of 636,133 shares of Sangamo common stock, valued at $4.9 million, and a $15.1 million upfront license fee. Sangamo has received commercial license fees of $5.0 million based upon a percentage of net sales and sublicensing revenue and thereafter a reduced royalty rate of 10.5% of net sales and sublicensing revenue.  In addition, upon the achievement of certain cumulative commercial milestones Sigma will make milestone payments to Sangamo up to an aggregate of $25.0 million.

Revenues recognized under the agreement with Sigma for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 were as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Revenue related to Sigma Collaboration:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Royalty revenues

 

$

12

 

 

$

264

 

License fee revenues

 

 

7

 

 

 

4,256

 

Total

 

$

19

 

 

$

4,520

 

 

Related costs and expenses incurred under the Sigma agreement were $0.0 million and $0.2 million during the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

Agreement with Dow AgroSciences in Plant Agriculture

In October 2005 the Company entered into an exclusive commercial license agreement with Dow AgroSciences, LLC (DAS). Under this agreement, Sangamo provides DAS with access to proprietary ZFP technology and the exclusive right to use the technology to modify the genomes or alter the nucleic acid or protein expression of plant cells, plants, or plant cell cultures. Sangamo has retained rights to use plants or plant-derived products to deliver ZFP transcription factors (ZFP TFs) or ZFP nucleases (ZFNs) into humans or animals for diagnostic, therapeutic or prophylactic purposes. The Company’s agreement with DAS provided for an initial three year research term. In June 2008, DAS exercised its option under the agreement to obtain a commercial license to sell products incorporating or derived from plant cells generated using the Company’s ZFP technology, including agricultural crops, industrial products and plant-derived biopharmaceuticals. The exercise of the option triggered a one-time commercial license fee of $6.0 million,

13

 


payment of the remaining $2.3 million of the previously agreed $4.0 million in research milestones, development and commercialization milestone payments for each product, and royalties on sales of products. Furthermore, DAS has the right to sublicense Sangamo’s ZFP technology to third parties for use in plant cells, plants or plant cell cultures and Sangamo will be entitled to 25% of any cash consideration received by DAS under such sublicenses. In December 2010, the Company amended its agreement with DAS to extend the period of reagent manufacturing services and research services through December 31, 2012.

The agreement with DAS also provides for minimum sublicense fees each year due to Sangamo every October, provided the Agreement is not terminated by DAS. Annual fees range from $250,000 to $3.0 million and total $25.3 million over 11 years. The Company does not have any ongoing performance obligations with respect to the sublicensing activities to be conducted by DAS. DAS has the right to terminate the agreement at any time; accordingly, the Company’s actual sublicense fees over the term of the agreement could be lower than $25.3 million. In addition, each party may terminate the agreement upon an uncured material breach by the other party. In the event of any termination of the agreement, all rights to use the Company’s ZFP technology will revert to Sangamo, and DAS will no longer be permitted to practice Sangamo’s ZFP technology or to develop or, except in limited circumstances, commercialize any products derived from the Company’s ZFP technology.

There were no revenues or related costs and expenses incurred under the agreement during the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

Funding from Research Foundations

California Institute for Regenerative Medicine - HIV

In May 2014 CIRM agreed to fund a $5.6 million Strategic Partnership Award to fund the clinical studies of this potentially curative ZFP Therapeutic for HIV/AIDS based on the application of its ZFN genome editing technology in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The four year grant provides matching funds to support evaluation of the Company’s stem cell-based ZFP Therapeutic in a clinical trial in HIV-infected individuals conducted at City of Hope.

There were no revenues attributable to research and development performed under the Strategic Partnership Award during the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Related costs and expenses incurred under the CIRM Strategic Partnership Award were $0.3 million and $0.3 million during the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

 

NOTE 6—INCOME TAXES

The Company maintains deferred tax assets that reflect the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes. These deferred tax assets include net operating loss carryforwards, research credits and capitalized research and development costs. Realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon future earnings, if any, the timing and amount of which are uncertain based on Sangamo’s history of losses. Accordingly, the Company’s net deferred tax assets have been fully offset by a valuation allowance. Utilization of operating losses and credits may be subject to substantial annual limitation due to ownership change provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended and similar state provisions. The annual limitation may result in the expiration of net operating losses and credits before utilization.  

 

NOTE 7—STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION

The following table shows total stock-based compensation expense included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

Research and development

 

$

1,850

 

 

$

1,691

 

General and administrative

 

 

1,344

 

 

 

1,262

 

Total stock-based compensation expense

 

$

3,194

 

 

$

2,953

 

 

NOTE 8—BUILD-TO-SUIT LEASE

In December 2015 the Company entered into a long-term property lease which includes construction by the lessor of a building with approximately 41,400 square feet of space, in Richmond, California. The lease agreement expires five years after substantial completion of the building, which is estimated to be completed in late 2016. The Company has two options to extend the lease term for up to a combined additional ten years.

14

 


The Company is deemed, for accounting purposes only, to be the owner of the entire project including the building shell, even though it is not the legal owner. In connection with the Company’s accounting for this transaction, the Company will capitalize costs of construction as a build-to-suit property within property and equipment, net, and recognize a corresponding build-to-suit lease obligation for the same amount. As of the three months ended March 31, 2016, $0.2 million of costs were capitalized in construction in progress with a corresponding build-to-suit lease obligation recognized related to this lease.

Upon construction a portion of the monthly lease payment will be allocated to land rent and recorded as an operating lease expense and the non-interest portion of the amortized lease payments to the landlord related to the rent of the building will be applied to reduce the build-to-suit lease obligation.

 

 

 

15

 


ITEM  2.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS  

The discussion in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” contains trend analysis, estimates and other forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. These forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements containing the words “believes,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “continue,” and other words of similar import or the negative of those terms or expressions. Such forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, estimates and other factors that may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the Company, or industry results, to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. You should read the following discussion and analysis along with the financial statements and notes attached to those statements included elsewhere in this report and in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015 as filed with the SEC.

Overview

We are the leading company in the field of therapeutic genome editing which we are applying to “Engineer Genetic Cures” for numerous gene-based diseases. As a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company we are focused on the research, development and commercialization of engineered DNA-binding proteins for therapeutic genome editing and gene regulation.  Our proprietary zinc finger DNA-binding proteins (ZFP) technology enables efficient and highly specific genome editing and gene regulation and we are developing ZFP Therapeutics, novel therapeutic products for the treatment of genetic disease. We have several proprietary clinical and preclinical programs in development and have strategically partnered certain programs with biopharmaceutical companies to obtain funding for our own programs and to expedite clinical and commercial development. Our long-term goal is to forward integrate into manufacturing, development and commercial operations to more fully capture the value of our proprietary ZFP Therapeutic products.

We, and our licensed partners, are the leaders in the research, development and commercialization of ZFPs, a naturally occurring class of proteins found in humans. We have used our knowledge and expertise to develop a proprietary technology platform in both genome editing and gene regulation. ZFPs can be engineered to make ZFP nucleases (ZFNs), proteins that can be used to specifically modify DNA sequences by adding or knocking out specific genes (genome editing) and ZFP transcription factors (ZFP TFs), proteins that can be used to turn genes on or off (gene regulation). As ZFPs act at the DNA level, they potentially have broad and fundamental applications in several areas, including human therapeutics, plant agriculture and research reagents, including the production of transgenic animals and cell-line engineering. In the process of developing this platform we have accrued significant scientific, manufacturing and regulatory capabilities and know-how that is generally applicable in the broader field of gene therapy.

The main focus for our company is the development of novel human therapeutics. Our lead ZFP Therapeutic, SB-728-T, a ZFN-modified autologous T-cell product for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, is the first therapeutic application of our ZFN genome editing technology and is being evaluated in an ongoing Phase 2 study of ZFN-modified T-cells (SB-728-T-1101, Cohort 3*) and a Phase 1/2 study of modified hematopoietic stem cells (SB-728mR-HSPC) in HIV-infected subjects. We are also initiating Phase 1/2 studies of in vivo genome editing applications of ZFP Therapeutics for hemophilia B and MPS I, a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD).  In addition, we have proprietary preclinical programs in hemophilia A and other LSDs and research stage programs in other monogenic diseases, including certain central nervous system (CNS) disorders and cancer immunotherapy.

We have established collaborative partnership with Biogen Inc., formerly Biogen Idec Inc. (Biogen), to research, develop and commercialize our preclinical ZFP Therapeutic development program in hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell disease (SCD) and beta-thalassemia.  We also have a collaborative partnership with Shire International GmbH, formerly Shire AG (Shire), to research, develop and commercialize our preclinical ZFP Therapeutic development program in Huntington’s disease (HD).

We have entered into strategic partnerships in fields outside human therapeutics to facilitate the sale or licensing of our ZFP platform. We have a license agreement with Sigma-Aldrich Corporation (Sigma). Under this agreement, Sigma has the exclusive rights to develop and market ZFP-based laboratory research reagents marketed under the trademark CompoZr ® as well as ZFP-modified cell lines for commercial production of protein pharmaceuticals and ZFP-engineered transgenic animals. We also have a license agreement with Dow AgroSciences, LLC (DAS), a wholly owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Corporation. Under this agreement, DAS has the exclusive rights to use our ZFP technology to modify the genomes or alter protein expression of plant cells, plants, or plant cell cultures and markets our ZFN technology under the trademark EXZACTTM Precision Technology.

We have a substantial intellectual property position in the genome editing field including the design, selection, composition and use of engineered ZFPs to support our commercial activities. As of February 1, 2016, we either owned outright or have exclusively licensed the commercial rights to approximately 760 patents issued in the United States and foreign national jurisdictions, and we have 629 patent applications owned and licensed pending worldwide. We continue to license and file new patent applications that strengthen our core and accessory patent portfolio. We believe that our intellectual property position is a critical element in our ability to research, develop and commercialize products and services based on ZFP technology across our chosen applications.

16

 


We have incurred net losses since inception and expect to incur losses in the future as we continue our research and development activities. To date, we have funded our operations primarily through the issuance of equity securities, payments from corporate collaborations and research grants.

For the three months ended March 31, 2016, we incurred a consolidated net loss of $16.5 million, or $0.23 per share, compared to a net loss of $5.3 million, or $0.08 per share, for the same period in 2015. As of March 31, 2016, we had cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities and interest receivable totaling $189.0 million compared to $209.3 million as of December 31, 2015. As of March 31, 2016, we had an accumulated deficit of $385.7 million.

Our revenues have consisted primarily of revenues from our corporate partners for ZFNs and ZFP TFs, contractual payments from strategic partners for research services and research milestones, and research grant funding. We expect revenues will continue to fluctuate from period to period and there can be no assurance that new collaborations or partner funding will continue beyond their initial terms or that we are able to meet the milestones specified in these agreements.

In the development of our ZFP technology platform, we are focusing our resources on higher-value ZFP Therapeutic product development and less on our non-therapeutic applications. Development of novel therapeutic products is costly and is subject to a lengthy and uncertain regulatory process at the FDA. Our future products will be gene-based therapeutics. Adverse events in both our own clinical program and other programs may have a negative impact on regulatory approval, the willingness of potential commercial partners to enter into agreements and public perception.

Critical Accounting Estimates

The accompanying discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our condensed consolidated financial statements and the related disclosures, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported amounts in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We believe that there have been no significant changes in our critical accounting policies and estimates disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015, as filed with the SEC.

Results of Operations

Three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015

Revenues

 

 

 

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

 

(in thousands, except percentage values)

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

Change

 

 

%

 

Revenues:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Collaboration agreements

 

$

3,711

 

 

$

12,671

 

 

$

(8,960

)

 

 

(71

%)

Research Grants

 

 

231

 

 

 

820

 

 

 

(589

)

 

 

(72

%)

Total revenues

 

$

3,942

 

 

$

13,491

 

 

$

(9,549

)

 

 

(71

%)

 

Total revenues consist of revenues from collaboration agreements and research grants. We anticipate revenues over the next several years will be derived primarily from our collaboration agreements with Biogen, DAS and Sigma.

Revenues from our corporate collaboration agreements were $3.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016, compared to $12.7 million in the corresponding period in 2015. The $9.0 million decrease in collaboration agreements revenues was primarily due to a decrease of $4.5 million in revenues related to our collaboration with Sigma, $4.1 million related to the amendment of our collaboration and license agreement with Shire, and a $0.4 million decrease in revenues related to our collaboration and license agreement with Biogen.  The revenues from Biogen included $2.0 million from research services and $0.6 million related to partial recognition of an upfront license fee of $20.0 million. The revenues from Shire included $0.4 million from research services and $0.5 million related to partial recognition of an upfront license fee of $13.0 million. Research grant revenues were approximately $0.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016, compared to $0.8 million in the corresponding period in 2015.

17

 


Operating Expenses

 

 

 

Three months ended March 31,

 

 

 

(in thousands, except percentage values)

 

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

Change

 

 

%

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

15,266

 

 

$

14,980

 

 

$

286

 

 

 

2

%

General and administrative

 

 

5,357

 

 

 

4,732

 

 

 

625

 

 

 

13

%

Total expenses

 

$

20,623

 

 

$

19,712

 

 

$

911

 

 

 

5

%

 

Research and development

Research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and personnel related expenses, including stock-based compensation, laboratory supplies, preclinical and clinical studies, manufacturing expenses, allocated facilities expenses, subcontracted research expenses and expenses for technology licenses. In 2015, we established a Technical Operations group to manage the relationships with third-party vendors used in our manufacturing processes as well as to improve our process development and increase our overall manufacturing capabilities.  We expect to continue to devote substantial resources to research and development in the future and expect research and development expenses to increase in the next several years if we are successful in advancing our HIV/AIDS program and our IVPRP programs in the clinic and if we are able to progress our earlier stage ZFP therapeutic product candidates into clinical trials including our programs under our collaboration with Biogen and Shire. Pursuant to the terms of the agreements with Biogen and Shire, certain of our expenses related to research and development activities will be reimbursed, including employee and external research costs. The reimbursement funds received from Biogen and Shire are recognized as revenue as the costs are incurred and collection is reasonably assured. We also continue to fulfill our obligations under the terms of our non-therapeutic collaboration agreements with Sigma and DAS. In addition, to the extent we continue to receive royalties from Sigma, we will incur fees related to certain technologies that we have in-licensed.

Research and development expenses were $15.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016, compared to $15.0 million in the corresponding period in 2015. The increase of $0.3 million in research and development expenses was primarily due to increases of $0.4 million increase in salaries and benefits, $0.3 million in consulting expense, and $0.2 million in stock-based compensation expense, partially offset by a decrease of $0.6 million in manufacturing expenses.

General and administrative

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and personnel related expenses, including stock-based compensation, other expenses for executive, finance and administrative personnel, professional fees, allocated facilities expenses, patent prosecution expenses and other general corporate expenses. As we pursue commercial development of our therapeutic programs, we expect the business aspects of the Company to become more complex. We may be required to add personnel and incur additional expenses related to the maturity of our business.

General and administrative expenses were $5.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2016, compared to $4.7 million for the corresponding period in 2015. The increase was primarily related to an increase of $0.4 million in professional fees and consulting expense, $0.1 million in salaries and benefits, and $0.1 million in stock-based compensation expense.  

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Liquidity

Since inception, we have incurred significant net losses and we have funded our operations primarily through the issuance of equity securities, payments from corporate collaborators and strategic partners and research grants.

As of March 31, 2016, we had cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities and interest receivable totaling $189.0 million compared to $209.3 million as of December 31, 2015, with the decrease primarily attributable to our net operating loss.

Our most significant use of capital pertains to salaries and benefits for our employees and external development expenses, such as manufacturing, clinical trials and preclinical activity, related to our ZFP Therapeutic programs. Our cash and investment balances are held in a variety of interest bearing instruments, including obligations of U.S. government agencies, U.S. Treasury debt securities, corporate debt securities, corporate debt securities and money market funds. Cash in excess of immediate requirements is invested in accordance with our investment policy with a view toward capital preservation and liquidity.

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Under the agreement with Biogen, we received an upfront license fee of $20.0 million in 2014. Biogen will reimburse us for agreed upon costs incurred in connection with research and development activities conducted by us. In addition, we are eligible to receive development milestone payments upon the achievement of specified regulatory, clinical development and commercialization milestones. We will also be eligible to receive incremental royalties for each licensed product that are a tiered double-digit percentage of annual net sales of such product, if any.

In January 2012, we entered into a license and collaboration agreement with Shire, under which we received an upfront license fee of $13.0 million. In addition, Shire agreed to reimburse us for agreed upon costs incurred in connection with research and development activities that we conducted and to pay us certain milestone payments based on our achievement of specified research, regulatory, clinical development, commercialization and sales milestones, which depended upon our ability with Shire to continue to progress our programs under collaboration. We were also eligible to receive royalty payments on net sales of products developed under the collaboration, if any. On September 1, 2015, we amended the Shire agreement such that going forward, each company is responsible for expenses associated with its own programs and will reimburse the other for any ongoing services provided. Under the amended agreement, Shire does not have any milestone payment obligations to us with respect to the retained programs, but it is required to pay single digit percentage royalties to us, up to a specified maximum cap, on the commercial sales of ZFP therapeutic products from such programs. Under the Agreement, we have full control over, and full responsibility for the costs of, the hemophilia programs returned to us, subject to certain diligence obligations and Shire’s right of first negotiation to obtain a license to such programs under certain circumstances. We are required to pay single digit percentage royalties to Shire, up to a specified maximum cap, on commercial sales of ZFP therapeutic products from such returned programs.

 

Cash Flows

Operating activities. Net cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 was $20.4 million and $2.4 million, respectively. Net cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2016 primarily reflected the increase in net loss for the period as well as a decrease in accrued liabilities and deferred revenue, partially offset by the increase in stock-based compensation. Net cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2015 primarily reflected the increases in net loss for the period as well as a decrease in accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued compensation, partially offset by the increase in stock-based compensation.

Investing activities. Net cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2016 was $16.3 million, while cash provided in investing activities was $18.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2015. Cash flows from investing activities for both periods primarily related to purchases and maturities of investments.

Financing activities. Net cash provided by financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 was $0.2 million and $3.2 million, respectively. Net cash provided by financing activities for the three month period ended March 31, 2016 and March 31, 2015 was primarily related to the issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options.

Operating Capital and Capital Expenditure Requirements

We anticipate continuing to incur operating losses for at least the next several years. While our rate of cash usage may increase in the future, in particular to support our product development endeavors, we believe our available cash resources as well as funds received from corporate collaborators, strategic partners and research grants will enable us to maintain our currently planned operations through 2017. Future capital requirements will be substantial, and if our capital resources are insufficient to meet future capital requirements, we will need to raise additional capital to fund our operations, including ZFP Therapeutic development activities, through equity or debt financing. We regularly consider fund raising opportunities and may decide, from time to time, to raise capital based on various factors, including market conditions and our plans of operation. Additional capital may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available, or if the terms of potential funding sources are unfavorable, our business and our ability to develop our technology and our ZFP Therapeutic products would be harmed. Furthermore, any sales of additional equity securities may result in dilution to our stockholders, and any debt financing may include covenants that restrict our business.

Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors and are not limited to the following:

 

·

the initiation, progress, timing and completion of clinical trials for our product candidates;

 

·

the outcome, timing and cost of regulatory approvals;

 

·

the success of our collaboration agreements with Biogen and Shire;

 

·

delays that may be caused by changing regulatory requirements;

 

·

the number of product candidates that we pursue;

 

·

the costs involved in filing and prosecuting patent applications and enforcing and defending patent claims;

19

 


 

·

the timing and terms of future in-licensing and out-licensing transactions;  

 

·

the cost and timing of establishing sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution capabilities;

 

·

the cost of procuring clinical and commercial supplies of our product candidates;

 

·

the extent to which we acquire or invest in businesses, products or technologies; and

 

·

the possible costs of litigation.

 

ITEM  3.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

Our primary exposure to market risk is interest income sensitivity relating to our cash, cash equivalents and investments, which is affected by changes in the general level of U.S. interest rates. We do not have any foreign currency or other derivative financial instruments.

Our market risks at March 31, 2016 have not changed materially from those discussed in Item 7A of our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015 on file with the SEC.

 

ITEM  4.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

Disclosure Controls and Procedures

We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in our Exchange Act reports is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Securities and Exchange Commission’s rules and forms and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. In designing and evaluating the disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, and not absolute, assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In reaching a reasonable level of assurance, management necessarily was required to apply its judgment in evaluating the cost benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures.

As required by the Securities and Exchange Commission Rule 13a-15(b), we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision of and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on the foregoing, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.

Change in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There has been no change in our internal controls over financial reporting during our most recent fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal controls over financial reporting.

 

 

 

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PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

 

ITEM  1.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

We are not party to any material pending legal proceedings. From time to time, we may be involved in legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business.

 

ITEM  1A.

RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves significant risk. You should carefully consider the information described in the following risk factors, together with the other information appearing elsewhere in this report, before making an investment decision regarding our common stock. While the risk factors set forth below update and supplement the risk factors set forth in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015 (2015 Annual Report), you should review our 2015 Annual Report, including the section under the caption “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” together with the other information appearing elsewhere in this report, before making an investment decision regarding our common stock. If any of the risks described below or in our 2015 Annual Report actually occur, our business, financial conditions, results of operation and future growth prospects would likely be materially and adversely affected. In these circumstances, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or a part of your investment in our common stock. Moreover, the risks described below and in our 2015 Annual Report are not the only ones that we face. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business, operating results, prospects or financial condition. You should carefully consider these risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this Form 10-Q as well as our other publicly available filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Risks Relating to Development, Commercialization and Regulatory Approval of our Products and Technology

ZFP Therapeutics have undergone limited testing in humans and our ZFP Therapeutics may fail safety studies in clinical trials.

We have an ongoing Phase 2 clinical trial (SB-728-1101, Cohort 3*) of our ZFP Therapeutic, SB-728-T, for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. We also have an open Phase 1/2 clinical trial of our ZFP Therapeutic for HIV in HSPCs (SB-728mR-HSPC) and expect to initiate Phase 1/2 clinical trials of our IVPRP approach in hemophilia B and MPS I in the first half of 2016 and in mid-2016, respectively.  Preliminary data demonstrate that treatment of HIV-infected subjects with SB-728-T has been well-tolerated. In addition, data from Phase 1 and several Phase 2 clinical trials of our ZFP Therapeutic, SB-509, for diabetic neuropathy and ALS demonstrated that the drug was well tolerated in these studies. However, if one of our ZFP Therapeutic fails one of its safety studies, it could reduce our ability to attract new investors and corporate partners.

All of these studies are designed primarily to evaluate the safety and tolerability of this ZFP Therapeutic approach. Our clinical studies are a highly visible test of our ZFP Therapeutics and our investors assess the value of our technology primarily based on the continued progress of ZFP Therapeutic products into and through clinical trials. If clinical trials of our ZFP Therapeutic products were halted due to safety concerns, this would negatively affect our operations and the value of shares in our common stock.

Our progress in early Phase 1 and Phase 2 trials may not be indicative of long-term efficacy in late stage clinical trials.

The results in early phases of clinical testing are based upon limited numbers of patients and a limited follow-up period. Typically, our Phase 1 clinical trials for indications of safety enroll less than 15 patients. Our Phase 2 and late-stage clinical trials generally enroll a larger number of patients. Accordingly, any positive data obtained in early Phase 1 and Phase 2 trials may not be indicative of long-term efficacy in late-stage clinical trials.

In September 2011 we announced preliminary data from our clinical program to develop SB-728-T for the treatment of HIV/AIDS which is now in Phase 2 clinical testing. The data demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between SB-728-T and the reduction of HIV viral load. In January 2012 we initiated a Phase 2 clinical study (SB-728-902, Cohort 5) and a Phase 1/2 clinical study (SB-728-1101) for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. In December 2013 we presented data from all cohorts of these two clinical trials. Three of seven evaluable subjects in Cohort 5 showed a decrease of greater than one log in their viral load during a sixteen week treatment interruption (TI) of their antiretroviral therapy (ART) with one subject achieving a transiently undetectable viral load during the TI period and one subject achieving control of their viral load during TI for a prolonged period (>70 weeks as of January 2015). Additional data were presented from the Company’s Phase 1 study (SB-728-902, Cohorts 1-3) that demonstrated a long-term decrease in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) HIV reservoir using a sensitive test for integrated HIV DNA in nine of nine subjects over a 36 month period (median decrease 0.9 logs). We have enrolled additional subjects into the SB-728-1101 study to define the optimum dose of Cytoxan required to safely enhance engraftment and to evaluate the inclusion of modified CD8 cells as well as modified CD4 cells in the SB-728-T product. Two of three additional subjects, enrolled in Cohort 3* of this study, have demonstrated notable reductions in viral load during a TI from ART which has lasted for over one year.  However, there is no

21

 


guarantee that these and other future studies of SB-728-T in later stage trials involving larger patient groups may produce positive or similar results as those obtained in earlier trials.

A number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in late stage clinical trials even after achieving promising results in earlier stage clinical trials. If a larger population of patients does not experience positive results, or if these results are not reproducible, our products may not receive approval from the FDA. Failure to confirm favorable results from earlier trials by demonstrating the safety and effectiveness of our ZFP Therapeutic products in late stage clinical trials with larger patient populations could have a material adverse effect on our business that would cause our stock price to decline significantly.

Our potential therapeutic products are subject to a lengthy and uncertain regulatory process, and we may encounter unanticipated toxicity or adverse events or fail to demonstrate efficacy, causing us to delay, suspend or terminate the development of a ZFP Therapeutic. If these potential products are not approved, we will not be able to commercialize those products.

The FDA must approve any human therapeutic product before it can be marketed in the United States. The process for receiving regulatory approval is long and uncertain, and a potential product may not withstand the rigors of testing under the regulatory approval processes.

Before commencing clinical trials in humans, we must submit an IND application to the FDA. The FDA has 30 days to comment on the application, and if the agency has no comments, we or our commercial partner may begin clinical trials. While we have stated our intention to file additional IND applications in the future, this is only a statement of intent, and we may not be able to do so because the associated product candidates may not meet the necessary preclinical requirements. In addition, there can be no assurance that, once filed, an IND application will result in the actual initiation of clinical trials. Clinical trials are subject to oversight by institutional review boards and the FDA. In addition, our proposed clinical studies may require review from the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC), which is the advisory board to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), focusing on clinical trials involving gene transfer.

Clinical trials:

 

·

must be conducted in conformance with the FDA’s good clinical practices, within the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) and other applicable regulations;

 

·

must meet requirements for Institutional Review Board (IRB) oversight;

 

·

must follow Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) and NIH RAC guidelines where applicable;

 

·

must meet requirements for informed consent;

 

·

are subject to continuing FDA oversight;

 

·

may require oversight by a Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB);

 

·

may require large numbers of test subjects; and

 

·

may be suspended by a commercial partner, the FDA, or us at any time if it is believed that the subjects participating in these trials are being exposed to unacceptable health risks or if the FDA finds deficiencies in the IND application or the conduct of these trials.

If we are not able to obtain the necessary regulatory approval to commercialize our products of if such approval is delayed or suspended, it would have an adverse effect on our business operations and trading price of our common stock

While we have stated our goal is to file IND applications for several ZFP Therapeutic programs in the future, we may encounter difficulties that may delay, suspend or scale back our efforts.

We have previously announced a strategy for our ZFP Therapeutic programs that enables the potential filing of two to four new IND applications per year in the foreseeable future.  The preparation and submission of IND applications requires us to conduct rigorous and time-consuming preclinical testing, studies, and documentation relating to, among other things, the toxicity, safety, manufacturing, chemistry and clinical protocol of new ZFP Therapeutic products. We may experience unforeseen difficulties that could delay or otherwise prevent us from executing this strategy successfully. For example, we may encounter problems in the manufacturing of our ZFP Therapeutic products and fail to demonstrate consistency in the formulation of the drug. Our preclinical tests may produce negative or inconclusive results, which may lead us to decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional preclinical testing. If we cannot obtain positive results in preclinical testing, we may decide to abandon the projects altogether. In addition, our ability to complete and file certain IND applications depends on the support of our partners and the timely performance

22

 


of their obligations under relevant collaboration agreements. If our partners are not able to perform such obligations or if they choose to slow down or delay the progress, we may not be able to prepare and file the intended IND applications on a timely basis or at all. Furthermore, the filing of several IND applications involves significant cost and labor, and we may not have sufficient resources and personnel to complete the filing of all intended IND applications, which may force us to scale back the number of IND applications or forego potential IND applications that we believe are promising. Any delay, suspension or reduction of our efforts to pursue our preclinical and IND strategy could have a material adverse effect on our business and cause our stock price to decline.

We may not be able to find acceptable patients or may experience delays in enrolling patients for our clinical trials.

We may experience difficulties or delays in recruiting and enrolling a sufficient number of patients to participate in our clinical trials due to a variety of reasons, including competition from other clinical trial programs for the same indication, failure of patients to meet our enrollment criteria and premature withdraws of patients prior to the completion of clinical trials. The FDA and institutional review boards may also require large numbers of patients, and the FDA may require that we repeat a clinical trial. Any delay resulting from our failure to enroll a sufficient number of patients on a timely basis may have a material adverse effect on our business.

As we cannot predict whether or when we will obtain regulatory approval to commercialize our product candidates, we cannot predict the timing of any future revenue from these product candidates.

We cannot commercialize any of our ZFP Therapeutics to generate revenue until the appropriate regulatory authorities have reviewed and approved the applications for the product candidates. We cannot ensure that the regulatory agencies will complete their review processes in a timely manner or that we will obtain regulatory approval for any product candidate that we or our collaborators develop. Satisfaction of regulatory requirements typically takes many years, is dependent upon the type, complexity and novelty of the product and requires the expenditure of substantial resources. Regulatory approval processes outside the United States include all of the risks associated with the FDA approval process. In addition, we may experience delays or rejections based upon additional government regulation from future legislation or administrative action or changes in FDA policy during the period of product development, clinical trials and FDA regulatory review.

We have limited experience in conducting clinical trials.

Our most advanced clinical programs are ongoing Phase 2 trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a ZFP Therapeutic for HIV/AIDS. For potential marketing application approval, additional clinical testing will be required, which involves significantly greater resources, commitments and expertise and so it is likely that we would need to enter into a collaborative relationship with a pharmaceutical company that could assume responsibility for late-stage development and commercialization.

We have limited experience in conducting advanced clinical trials and may not possess the necessary resources and expertise to complete such trials, and we may need to seek partnerships or collaboration with third parties to advance these trials. We have entered into a collaborative agreement with Biogen to provide funding and assistance in the development of certain ZFP Therapeutics through the clinical trial process. Under the agreement with Biogen, we are responsible for all research and development through the first human clinical trial for the treatment of beta-thalassemia and both parties are responsible for research and development through the submission of IND for ZFP Therapeutics to treat sickle cell disease (SCD). However, there is no guarantee that we will be able to enter into future collaborative relationships with third parties that can provide us with the funding and expertise for later stage trials.

Regulatory approval, if granted, will be limited to specific uses or geographic areas, which could limit our ability to generate revenues.

Regulatory approval will be limited to the indicated use for which we can market a product. Further, once regulatory approval for a product is obtained, the product and its manufacturer are subject to continual review. Discovery of previously unknown problems with a product or manufacturer may result in restrictions on the product, manufacturer, and manufacturing facility, including withdrawal of the product from the market. In Japan and Europe, regulatory agencies also set or approve prices.

Even if regulatory clearance of a product is granted, this clearance is limited to those specific states and conditions for which the product is useful, as demonstrated through clinical trials. We cannot ensure that any ZFP Therapeutic product developed by us, alone or with others, will prove to be safe and effective in clinical trials and will meet all of the applicable regulatory requirements needed to receive marketing clearance in a given country.

Outside the United States, our ability to market a product is contingent upon receiving a marketing authorization from appropriate regulatory authorities; therefore we cannot predict whether or when we would be permitted to commercialize our product outside the United States. These foreign regulatory approval processes include all of the risks associated with FDA clearance described above.

23

 


Commercialization of our technologies will depend, in part, on strategic partnering with other companies. If we are not able to find partners in the future or if our partners do not diligently pursue product development efforts, we may not be able to develop our technologies or products, which could slow our growth and decrease the value of our stock.

We expect to rely, to some extent, on our strategic partners to provide funding in support of our research and to perform independent research and preclinical and clinical testing. Our technology is broad-based, and we do not currently possess the resources necessary to fully develop and commercialize potential products that may result from our technologies or the resources or capabilities to complete the lengthy marketing approval processes that may be required for the products. Therefore, we plan to rely on strategic partnerships to help us develop and commercialize ZFP Therapeutic products. If we are unable to find partners or if the partners we find, such as Shire and Biogen, are unable or unwilling to advance our programs, or if they do not diligently pursue product approval, this may slow our progress and adversely affect our ability to generate revenues. In addition, our partners may sublicense or abandon development programs or we may have disagreements or disputes with our partners, which would cause associated product development to slow or cease. In addition, the business or operations of our partners may change significantly through restructuring, acquisition or other strategic transactions or decisions that may negatively impact their ability to advance our programs. There can be no assurance that we will be able to establish further strategic collaborations for ZFP Therapeutic product development. We may require significant time to secure collaborations or partners because we need to effectively market the benefits of our technology to these future collaborators and partners, which may direct the attention and resources of our research and development personnel and management away from our primary business operations. Further, each collaboration or partnering arrangement will involve the negotiation of terms that may be unique to each collaborator or partner. These business development efforts may not result in a collaboration or partnership.

The loss of partnering agreements may delay or terminate the potential development or commercialization of products we may derive from our technologies, but it may also delay or terminate our ability to test ZFP Therapeutic candidates for specific genes. If any partner fails to conduct the collaborative activities successfully or in a timely manner, the preclinical or clinical development or commercialization of the affected product candidates or research programs could be delayed or terminated.

Under typical partnering agreements, we would expect to receive revenue for the research and development of a ZFP Therapeutic product based on achievement of specific milestones, as well as royalties based on a percentage of sales of the commercialized products. Achieving these milestones will depend, in part, on the efforts of our partner as well as our own. If we, or any partner, fail to meet specific milestones, then the partnership may be terminated, which could reduce our revenues. For more information on risks relating to our third party collaborative agreements, see “Risks Relating to our Collaborative Relationships.”

We may be unable to license gene transfer technologies that we may need to commercialize our ZFP technology.

In order to regulate or modify a gene in a cell, the ZFP must be efficiently delivered to the cell. We have licensed certain gene transfer technologies for our ZFP in research including AAV and mRNA technology. We are evaluating these systems and other technologies that may need to be used in the delivery of ZFP into cells for in vitro and in vivo applications, including ZFP Therapeutics. However, we may not be able to license the gene transfer technologies required to develop and commercialize our ZFP Therapeutics. We have not developed our own gene transfer technologies, and we rely on our ability to enter into license agreements to provide us with rights to the necessary gene transfer technology. Our approach has been to license appropriate technology as required. The inability to obtain a license to use gene transfer technologies with entities which own such technology on reasonable commercial terms, if at all, could delay or prevent the preclinical evaluation, drug development collaborations, clinical testing, and/or commercialization of our therapeutic product candidates.

Our gene regulation and genome editing technology is relatively new, and if we are unable to use this technology in all our intended applications, it would limit our revenue opportunities.

Our technology involves a relatively new approach to gene regulation and genome editing. Although we have generated ZFPs for thousands of gene sequences, we have not created ZFPs for all gene sequences and may not be able do so, which could limit the usefulness of our technology. In addition, while we have demonstrated the function of engineered ZFNs and ZFP TFs in mammalian cells, yeast, insects, plants and animals, we have not yet demonstrated clinical efficacy of this technology in a controlled clinical trial in humans, and the failure to do so could restrict our ability to develop commercially viable products. If we, and our collaborators or strategic partners, are unable to extend our results to new commercially important genes, experimental animal models, and human clinical studies, we may be unable to use our technology in all its intended applications.

The expected value and utility of our ZFNs and ZFP TFs is in part based on our belief that the targeted editing of genes or specific regulation of gene expression may enable us to develop a new therapeutic approach as well as to help scientists better understand the role of genes in disease, and to aid their efforts in drug discovery and development. We also believe that ZFP-mediated targeted genome editing and gene regulation will have utility in agricultural applications. There is only a limited understanding of the role of specific genes in all these fields. Life sciences companies have developed or commercialized only a few products in any of these fields based on results

24

 


from genomic research or the ability to regulate gene expression. We, our collaborators or our strategic partners, may not be able to use our technology to identify and validate drug targets or to develop commercial products in the intended markets.

Effective delivery of ZFNs and ZFP TFs into the appropriate target cells and tissues is critical to the success of the therapeutic applications of our ZFP technology. In order to have a meaningful therapeutic effect, the ZFP Therapeutic must be delivered to sufficient numbers of cells in the targeted tissue. The ZFN or ZFP TF must be present in that tissue for sufficient time to effect either modification of a therapeutically relevant gene or regulation of its expression. In our current clinical and preclinical programs, we administer our ZFP Therapeutics as a nucleic acid that encodes the ZFN or ZFP TF. We use different formulations to deliver the ZFP Therapeutic depending on the required duration of expression, the targeted tissue and the indication that we intend to treat. However, there can be no assurances that we will be able to effectively deliver our ZFNs and ZFP TFs to produce a beneficial therapeutic effect.

We are conducting proprietary research to discover ZFP Therapeutic product candidates. These programs increase our financial risk of product failure, may significantly increase our research expenditures, and may involve conflicts with future collaborators and strategic partners.

Our proprietary research programs consist of research that is funded solely by us or by grant funding and in which we retain exclusive rights to therapeutic products generated by such research. This is in contrast to certain of our research programs that may be funded by corporate partners in which we may share rights to any resulting products. Conducting proprietary research programs may not generate corresponding revenue and may create conflicts with our collaborators or strategic partners over rights to our intellectual property with respect to our proprietary research activities. Any conflict with our collaborators or strategic partners could reduce our ability to enter into future collaborations or partnering agreements and negatively impact our relationship with existing collaborators and partners that could reduce our revenue and delay or terminate our product development. As we continue to focus our strategy on proprietary research and therapeutic development, we expect to experience greater business risks, expend significantly greater funds and require substantial commitments of time from our management and staff.

Even if our technology proves to be effective, it still may not lead to commercially viable products.

Even if our collaborators or strategic partners are successful in using our ZFP technology in drug discovery, protein production, therapeutic development or plant agriculture, they may not be able to commercialize the resulting products or may decide to use other methods competitive with our technology. To date, no company has received marketing approval or has developed or commercialized any therapeutic or agricultural products based on our technology. Should our technology fail to provide safe, effective, useful or commercially viable approaches to the discovery and development of these products, this would significantly limit our business and future growth and would adversely affect our value.

Even if our product development efforts are successful and even if the requisite regulatory approvals are obtained, our ZFP Therapeutics may not gain market acceptance among physicians, patients, healthcare payers and the medical community.

A number of additional factors may limit the market acceptance of our ZFP Therapeutic products including the following:

 

·

rate of adoption by healthcare practitioners;

 

·

rate of a product’s acceptance by the target population;

 

·

timing of market entry relative to competitive products;

 

·

availability of alternative therapies;

 

·

price of our product relative to alternative therapies;

 

·

availability of third-party reimbursement;

 

·

extent of marketing efforts by us and third-party distributors or agents retained by us; and

 

·

side-effects or unfavorable publicity concerning our products or similar products.

Therefore, even after we have obtained the required regulatory approval for our ZFP Therapeutic products, we may not be able to commercialize these products successfully if we cannot achieve an adequate level of market acceptance.

25

 


We currently rely on third parties to conduct some or all aspects of manufacturing of our ZFP Therapeutic product candidates for preclinical and clinical development.   If one of our third-party manufacturers fails to perform adequately or fulfill our needs, we may be required to incur significant costs and devote significant efforts, to find new suppliers or manufacturers.

We currently have limited experience in, and we do not own facilities for, clinical-scale manufacturing of our product candidates and we rely upon third-party contract manufacturing organizations to manufacture and supply drug product for our preclinical and clinical studies.  The manufacture of pharmaceutical products in compliance with the FDA’s current good manufacturing practices (cGMP), requires significant expertise and capital investment, including the development of advanced manufacturing techniques and process controls. Manufacturers of pharmaceutical products often encounter difficulties in production, including difficulties with production costs and yields, quality control, including stability of the product candidate and quality assurance testing, shortages of qualified personnel, as well as compliance with strictly enforced cGMP requirements, other federal and state regulatory requirements and foreign regulations. If our manufacturers were to encounter any of these difficulties or otherwise fail to comply with their obligations to us or under applicable regulations, our ability to provide study drugs in our clinical studies would be jeopardized. Any delay or interruption in the supply of clinical study materials could delay the completion of our clinical studies, increase the costs associated with maintaining our clinical study programs and, depending upon the period of delay, require us to commence new studies at significant additional expense or terminate the studies completely.

All manufacturers of our product candidates must comply with cGMP requirements enforced by the FDA through its facilities inspection program. These requirements include, among other things, quality control, quality assurance and the maintenance of records and documentation. Manufacturers of our product candidates may be unable to comply with these cGMP requirements and with other FDA, state and foreign regulatory requirements. The FDA or similar foreign regulatory agencies may also implement new standards at any time, or change their interpretation and enforcement of existing standards for manufacture, packaging or testing of products. We have little control over our manufacturers’ compliance with these regulations and standards. A failure to comply with these requirements may result in fines and civil penalties, suspension of production, suspension or delay in product approval, product seizure or recall or withdrawal of product approval. If the safety of any product supplied is compromised due to our manufacturers’ failure to adhere to applicable laws or for other reasons, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our products and we may be held liable for any injuries sustained as a result. Any of these factors could cause a delay of clinical studies, regulatory submissions, approvals or commercialization of our product candidates, entail higher costs or impair our reputation.

Our current agreements with our suppliers do not provide for the entire supply of the drug product necessary for all anticipated clinical studies or for full scale commercialization. If we and our suppliers cannot agree to the terms and conditions for them to provide the drug product necessary for our clinical and commercial supply needs, we may not be able to manufacture the product candidate until a qualified alternative supplier is identified, which could also delay the development of, and impair our ability to commercialize, our product candidates.

The number of third-party suppliers with the necessary manufacturing and regulatory expertise and facilities is limited, and it could be expensive and take a significant amount of time to arrange for alternative suppliers, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. New suppliers of any product candidate would be required to qualify under applicable regulatory requirements and would need to have sufficient rights under applicable intellectual property laws to the method of manufacturing the product candidate. Obtaining the necessary FDA approvals or other qualifications under applicable regulatory requirements and ensuring non-infringement of third-party intellectual property rights could result in a significant interruption of supply and could require the new manufacturer to bear significant additional costs which may be passed on to us.

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We do not currently have the infrastructure or capability to manufacture, market and sell therapeutic products on a commercial scale.

In order for us to commercialize our therapeutic products directly, we would need to develop, or obtain through outsourcing arrangements, the capability to manufacture, marke